Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Apush Unit 5 Essay Example

Apush Unit 5 Essay Example Apush Unit 5 Paper Apush Unit 5 Paper Essay Topic: The Bean Eaters Uncle Toms Cabin What was the compromise of 1850? The Compromise of 1850 was a series of five bills that were intended to stave off sectional strife. Its goal was to deal with the spread of slavery to territories in order to keep northern and southern interests in balance. What was the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850? The passage of this Act along with slaveholding rights in Texas allowed California to enter the union as a free state and prohibited the slave trade in the District of Columbia. a. What was the California Gold Rush? (1848-1859). The Gold Rush was one of the most significant events in California history. It brought people from all over the United States and the world in search for gold. b. Who discovered the Gold? .1848-James Marshall discovers gold at Sutters sawmill c. When did it start to attract people? 1849-Gold Rush starts to attract people from around the world d. When did California become a state? 1850-California becomes a state e. When and why did the Gold Rush end? .1859-Discovery of silver in Nevada ends the California Gold Rush Who was Charles Pickney? He was a politician who signed the U. S. Constitution Who was John Taylor? He took a stance against the extension of slavery along with people such as John Quincy Adams. Who was Mathew Perry? A commodore sent by President Fillmore to Japan, he succeeded in getting Japan to sigh the Treaty of Kanugawa. What was the Election of 1852? Pierce won the presidency against Scott and Hale. It marked the end of the Whig Party. What was the Significance of Uncle Toms Cabin? Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, it helped gain widespread support for the abolitionist cause. It was one of the causes of the civil war, gaining millions of anti-slavery sympathizers worldwide. Who was John C. Calhoun? A senator who championed for the south, he believed the issue of slavery would divide the nation and rejected Clays proposed concessions. He wanted the north to leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, and restore the political balance between the north and south. What was the Kansas-Nebraska Act? The act was made by Stephen Douglass, it split Nebraska into two territories, Nebraska and Kansas. The status of slavery would now be settle by popular sovereignty. Contradictory to earlier Acts. What was Biblical Defense? The southern defense of slavery by saying that the bible allowed it. Southerners believed that Blacks were the descendants of Canaan, who were cursed to be slaves for all eternity. Therefore, it was supposedly the divine decree of God that gave the black people the liability of being enslaved by white people and justified the degradation of the entire race What was the Mud-Sill Theory? Mudsill theory is a sociological theory which proposes that there must be, and always has been, a lower class for the upper classes to rest upon. The nference being a mudsill, the lowest threshold that supports the foundation for a building. Who was George Fitzhugh? George Fitzhugh was a Virginia lawyer and the author of two books (Sociology for the South and Cannibals All! ) and numerous articles advocating slavery. Who was Stephen Douglas? American politician, leader of the Democratic Party, and orator who espoused the cause of popular sovereignty in relation to the issue of slavery in the territorie s before the American Civil War (1861–65). What was the Know-nothing party? U. S. political party that flourished in the 1850s. The Know-Nothing party was an outgrowth of the strong anti-immigrant and especially anti-Roman Catholic sentiment that started to manifest itself during the 1840s. Who were the Free-soilers? (1848–54), minor but influential political party in the pre-Civil War period of American history that opposed the extension of slavery into the western territories. What is the Ostend Manifesto? communication from three U. S. diplomats to Secretary of State William L. Marcy, advocating U. S. seizure of Cuba from Spain; the incident marked the high point of the U. S. xpansionist drive in the Caribbean in the 1850s. What is Popular Sovereignty? a controversial political doctrine that the people of federal territories should decide for themselves whether their territories would enter the Union as free or slave states. What was the U. S’s foreign policy in central America? The U. S. did not want Brittan to control the atlantic to pacific trade. So they and New Granada, later became know n as Colombia, signed a treaty giving the U. S. the right to transit across the thin area of land in that area. What was the U. S. ’s foreign policy in Cuba? Southerners started eyeing what remained of Spain’s new world empire. They thought since there was a large population of slaves there that it would become a slave state, thus restoring the political balance in congress. What was the forein policy in china? President tyler dispatched caleb cushing to secure camparable concessions for U. S. and they sighned the Treaty of Wanghia with china. What was the foreign policy with japan? The Tokugawa Shogunate was protective of japan and prohibited foreign sailors. Then America pribe japan with technology and they sighned the treaty of Kanagawa on March 31, 1854. Who is william walker? A brazen american adventurer who tried reapeatedly to gain control of central america and instaled himself as president in july 1856 A. Who is charles sumner? A tall and imposing figure, was a leadind abolitionist one of the few in prominent in political life. B. What speach did charles sumner give and why? The crime against kansas. He gave this speech because the turbulent miscarrige of popular sovereignty. Who ran in the elction of 1856 and won? Buchanan ran for president against Fremont and Fillmore and Buchanan won the wo other candidates with 174 electoral votes. What was dred scott v. Sanford? It was a case where scott a black slave was sueing for freedom because he was in free soil but The court ruled Scott a slave and he couldnt sue in federal courts. What was Lecompton Constitution? A tricky document saying people couldnt vote for ir against the constitution as a whole but the costituition with or without slavery. Who was Millard Fillmore? He was an ex -president and was nominated in 1856 to run Know-nothing party. He also dispatched to japan a fleet of war ships. What was the Panic of 1857? The panic of 1857 was a financial panic in the United States caused by the declining international economy and over-expansion of the domestic economy What were the Lincoln-Douglas debates? 1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate Who was James Buchanan? James Buchanan was the 15th president and was a popular and experienced state politician and a successful attorney before his presidency Who was John C. Fremont? He was an American military officer,explorer, and the first candidate of the anti-slavery Republican Party for the office of President of the United States. What was The Attack on Harpers Ferry? The Attack on Harpers Ferry was when John Brown and his men attacked the U. S. Federal Arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. An arsenal is a place where military weapons are stored. John Brown wanted to seize the arsenal because he thought by stealing weapons he could help free some slaves. He would get slaves and other abolitionists to begin a battle against slave owners. The Raid at Harpers Ferry became one of the causes of the Civil War. What was The Election of 1860? The election of 1860 included the following candidates: Abraham Lincoln John Bell John Breckenrige Stephen DouglasThe election of 1860 was mostly over the controversial issue of slavery. Abraham Lincoln won a bitter election Who was John Bell? was a U. S. politician, attorney, and plantation owner. A wealthy slaveholder from Tennessee, Bell served in the United States Congress in both the House of Representatives and Senate. He began his career as a Democrat, he eventually fell out with Andrew Jackson and became a Whig. In 1860, he was among the three presidential candidates defeated by Abraham Lincoln in a bitterly divided election that helped spark the American Civil War. Who was john Breckenridge A Political leader who favored the extension of slavery. His opponents were Douglas and Bell. He polled fewer votes in slave states than the combined strength of his opponents. Showing that because of Uncle toms cabin American was mainly abolitionists. Who was Abraham Lincoln? 16th President of the United States, 16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865) ho was the first to secede? south carolina was the first state to secede What was Fort Summter? Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War, no deaths What was the confederacy? The confederacy was the name taken by the states that seceded from the union. What is the Crittenden Compromise? It was the final attempt to compromise which proposed to extend the old Missouri Compromise line. North of the line would be free and the south would be a slave area. What is the Morrill Tariff of 1861? It raised the tariff of 5% to 10% which aimed at raising revenue What was the Union? It was the northern states which fought during the civil war against the confederacy What is the Secession of upper south? It was when the southern states withdrew from the union and started the Confederate States of America What was the North’s advantage during the war? The north had a much larger military, they had 7x the manufacturing power then the south, and immigrants preferred to go to the north increasing the population What are â€Å"Fire Eaters†? They were an extreme group of pro-slavery politicians who were from the south and advocated the break away from the union and create a new nation. Who was Jefferson Davis why was he important? Born in 1808, Jefferson Davis was the President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. He was unsuccessful in his leadership against the Union largely due to his lack of organization, inability to delegate responsibility, and minor feuds with other statesmen. After the war, he was imprisoned for two years and indicted for treason but never tried. Slave Border States a. Why were there slave border states? Identify their importance during the Civil War. The Lincoln administration regarded border states, critical because of their geographical positions and questionable in loyalty because of their strong ties to both South and North. Slavery existed in the states represented a serious dilemma for President Lincoln. b. What did Lincoln think about the border states? He was convinced that they were the key to victory, he could not afford to alienate them with his emancipation policies, thus incurred the scorn of Radicals by failing to abolish border-state slavery until the 13th Amendment, passed in 1865. . what was happening in the western border states? And in the Western border states Federal troops had to be kept from the front lines to hold the occupied territory from Confederate invaders. d. what else did soldiers do in the slave holding border states? Soldiers also policed the polls to protect loyal Unionists during wartime elections. e. extra stuff †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Though the borde r states remained pro-Union, even severely divided Kentucky and Missouri, the effort to nurture their loyalty in the face of bitter internal struggles weighed heavily on Lincolns overall plan to win the war. . Identify the slave border states Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri F2 Delaware the Civil War tore Delaware apart just as the United States of America as a whole was torn asunder. Delawareans anxiously watched the storm clouds of war grow ever darker throughout the fateful election year of 1860. The war tore apart towns, old friendships, and even families, as Delawareans learned firsthand what a house divided really meant. F3Maryland one of the border states. The first fatalities of the war happened during the Baltimore Riot of 1861, and the single bloodiest day of combat in American military history occurred near Sharpsburg, Maryland, at the Battle of Antietam, which provided the opportunity for President Abraham Lincoln to issue his famed Emancipation Proclamation. The 1864 Battle of Monocacy helped delay a Confederate army bent on striking the Federal capital of Washington, D. C.. F4 Kentucky Kentucky was one of the border states in the Civil War, both geographically and politically, both Civil War presidents, Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis, were Kentucky native sons. F5 Missouri a border state that sent men, armies, generals, and supplies to both opposing sides, had its star on both flags, had separate governments representing each side, and endured a neighbor-against-neighbor intrastate war within the larger national war. The first major Civil War battle west of the Mississippi River was on August 10, 1861 at Wilsons Creek, Missouri, whereas the largest battle in the war west of the Mississippi River was the Battle of Westport at Kansas City in 1864. F6West Virginia formed out of western Virginia and added to the Union as a direct result of the American Civil War; a target of Confederate raids. These actions focused both on supplying the Confederate Army with provisions as well as attacking the vital Baltimore and Ohio Railroad that linked the northeast with the midwest What happened in East Tennessee? Placed the whole state under martial law when Tennessee was already a militarily over ran by South Confederacy, voters declined themselves for the Unions here. What are South advantages during the Civil War? Outstanding general Strong military traditions Strong motivation They were fighting on home ground Skilled with guns horses Cotton exchange What is it Anaconda Plan? First military strategy offered to President Abraham Lincoln for crushing the rebellion of Southern states was devised by Union General-in-Chief Winfield Scott. From April 1 through early May 1861 Scott briefed the president daily, often in person, on the national military situation; the results of these briefings were used by Scott to work out Union military aims What is the 1st Battle of Bull Run? First major land battle of the American Civil War. Known as the First Battle of Bull Run (or Manassas), the engagement began when about 35,000 Union troops marched from the federal capital in Washington, D. C. o strike a Confederate force of 20,000 along a small river known as Bull Run. Trent Affair, what is it? Reflected the uneasy state of international relations created by the war. The Confederacy hoped that England or France, even both, would come to its aid. The importance of cotton in the international marketplace was such, southerners argued, that the industrial powers of Europe co uld not long afford to allow the northern navy to enforce its blockade. The Trent affair was settled through diplomatic evasion and maneuvering, but the international situation remained tense throughtout the war Who is Robert E. Lee? Was a career military officer who is best known for having commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War. Who is Irvin Mc Dowell? Was a career American army officer. He is best known for his defeat in the First Battle of Bull Run, the first large-scale battle of the American Civil War a. Who was George McClellan? a major general during the American Civil War. organized the famous Army of the Potomac. served from November 1861 to March 1862 as general-in-chief of Union Army. b. What was McClellan important for? Raised a well-trained and organized army for the Union. McClellans Peninsula Campaign in 1862 failed by attacks by general Robert E Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. Battle of Antietam blunted Lees invasion of Maryland but allowed Lee to avoid destruction, despite being outnumbered. Abraham Lincoln, removed him from command, first as general-in-chief, then from the Army of the Potomac soon after. What was David Farragut known for? Aided the capture of new Orleans when sent aboard USS Hartford to command the West Gulf Blockading Squadron in early 1862. Farragut got orders to go against the south’s largest city New Orleans. Farragut ordered to open fire on April 18. On April 25, Farragut anchored off New Orleans and accepted the citys surrender. infantry under Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler arrived to occupy the city. a. What was Merrimac and monitor? two American warships that fought the first engagement between ironclad ships in the civil war. Merrimac a Confederate ship and Monitor a Union ship. b. what was Merrimac and Monitor important for? Confeds raised Merrimac commanded by Capt. Franklin Buchanan, sailed forth into Hampton Roads against the wooden ships of the Union. rammed and sank many Union ships. as challenged by the strange-looking Union ironclad Monitor. ships engaged in a four-hour close-range duel, which resulted in a draw. This combat marked a revolution in naval warfare. What was Antietam? pursuing Confederate General Robert E. Lee into Maryland, Union Army Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan launched attacks against Lees army behind Antietam Creek. Attacks and counterattacks swept across Miller s cornfield and fighting swirled around the Dunker Church. Lees invasion of Maryland was ended, and he was able to withdraw his army back to Virginia What was the importance of Emancipation proclamation? September 1862, shortly after the Battle of Antietam, Lincoln issued a preliminary emancipation proclamation. he was dedicated to restoring the Union and not ending slavery entirely. As of January 1, 1863, all slaves were to be freed in those areas still in rebellion. South claimed that they had known all along that Lincoln was an abolitionist. Others feared that the Proclamation would touch off a series of slave rebellions. Who was Ambrose Burnside? -an American soldier, railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U. S. Senator. Also a Union Army general in the Civil War. His distinctive style of facial hair is now known as sideburns, derived from his last name. What was the Conscription Act 1862? -In April the Confederate Congress passed the Conscription Act which drafted white men between eighteen and thirty-five for three years service in the confederate Army. What is Fredericksburg? -The Battle of Fredericksburg, was launched by Burnside to protest people saying he was unfitness for the responisblilty of Commander of the Army of the Potomac. He launched a rash frontal attack on the Confederates, more than ten thousand Northern Soldiers were killed or woundered in the Burnsides Slaughter Pen What was the Homestead Act 1862? -The Homestead Act declared that any citizen or intended citizen could claim 160 acres of surveyed government land. Claimants must improve the plot with a dwelling and grow crops. After five years, if the original filer was still on the land, it was his property, free and clear. What was Chancellorsville? -Place of battle during the Civil War (May 2-4 1863). victory for the confederacy. one of Lees most brilliant victories. What was the Morril Land Grant 1862? -Law that provided a generous grant of the public lands to the states for support of education. Land Grant colleges most of which became state universities in return bound themeselves to provide things such as military service. What were Copperheads? -Extreme people who were Peace Democrats that didnt want the war. Copperheads openly obstucted the war through attacks against the draft, against linclon, and espicially against the emancipation. What was the enrollment act of 1863? The Union and the Confederacy armies instituted the first federal military draft in American history during the Civil War. he Union resorted to a federal draft in March 1863, President Lincoln signed The Enrollment Act on March 3, 1863, requiring the enrollment of every male citizen and those immigrants who had filed for citizenship between ages twenty and forty-five. Federal agents established a quota of new troops due from each congressional district. What happened at t he battle of Gettysburg? In July of 1863, General Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia of 75,000 men and the 97,000 man Union Army of the Potomac, under George G. Meade, concentrated together at Gettysburg and fought the Battle of Gettysburg. Of the more than 2,000 land engagements of the Civil War, Gettysburg ranks supreme. Although the Battle of Gettysburg did not end the war, it was the great battle of the war, marking the point when the ultimate victory of the North over the South became clear to both sides alike. Who was Dorthea Dix? A noted social reformer, Dix became the Unions Superintendent of Female Nurses during the Civil War. A week after the attack on Fort Sumter, Dix, at age 59, volunteered her services to the Union and received the appointment in June 1861 placing her in charge of all women nurses working in army hospitals. Serving in that position without pay through the entire war, Dix quickly molded her vaguely defined duties. Who was clara barton? Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An angel in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field. What happen at the battle of vicksburg? In May and June of 1863, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant’s armies converged on Vicksburg, investing the city and entrapping a Confederate army under Lt. Gen. John Pemberton. On July 4, Vicksburg surrendered after prolonged siege operations. This was the culmination of one of the most brilliant military campaigns of the war. With the loss of Pemberton’s army and this vital stronghold on the Mississippi, the Confederacy was effectively split in half. Grants successes in the West boosted his reputation, leading ultimately to his appointment as General-in-Chief of the Union armies. What were the peace democrats? The Democrats were a badly divided political party in the late 1850s, having fallen prey to sectional bickering. They were unable to unify in 1860, a shortcoming that assured the election of Abraham Lincoln. During the course of the Civil War, the Democratic Party in the North comprised two factions one of which was the Peace Democrats What did the Peace democrats believe? Many Democrats within this group hoped that the Union could be salvaged, but felt that military means were not justified. This faction asserted the following: The North was responsible for pushing the South into secession The Republicans were committed to establishing racial equality, a prospect opposed by many working class immigrants who wanted to protect their low-paying jobs and by racists Lincoln had become a tyrant and was bent upon destroying civil liberties The war was a national tragedy and must be ended, even if that meant granting independence to the Confederacy What happen at the battle of chattanooga? a. From the last days of September through October 1863, Gen. Braxton Bragg’s army laid siege to the Union army under Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans at Chattanooga, cutting off its supplies. On October 17, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant received command of the Western armies; he moved to reinforce Chattanooga and replaced Rosecrans with Maj. Gen. George Thomas. b. A new supply line was soon established. Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman arrived with his four divisions in mid-November, and the Federals began offensive operations. On November 23-24, Union forces struck out and captured Orchard Knob and Lookout Mountain. On November 25, Union soldiers assaulted and carried the seemingly impregnable Confederate position on Missionary Ridge. One of the Confederacy’s two major armies was routed. The Federals held Chattanooga, the â€Å"Gateway to the Lower South,† which became the supply and logistics base for Sherman’s 1864 Atlanta Campaign. ^^^^Part of same definition. Its just to long to fit on one so yeah†¦. What effects did the Gettysburg address have on the nation? -it boasted the nation moral and it encouraged the nation to keeping fighting. Who won the election of 1864? Abraham Lincoln won the election. Why was Atlanta important to the south? Atlanta was a major railroad hub. What was Sherman’s march to the sea? It was a march when General Sherman and his 100,000 men went from Atlanta to savannah and he destroyed everything in his path. Who changed in command? -grant was moved to the east Tennessee theater while Sherman was entrusted with Georgia conquest. Why was grant transferred? Grant was moved because he was the victor of Vicksburg and he displayed rare skill and daring. Who was William T Sherman? He was a general in the union army. (melissa) What is the Appomattox Courthouse? Before the Civil War, the railroad bypassed Clover Hill, now known as the Appomattox Court House National Historical Park. The confederate army (Robert E. Lee) surrendered to the Union (Ulysses S. Grant). Who was Andrew Johnson? he was the first president to be impeached. opposed punitive measures against the south to the ire of radical republicans. When, How, Where was Lincoln assassinated? Five days after the surrender of the confederacy April 14, 1865(Good Friday), at Ford’s Theatre in Washington D. C. a pro-southerner named James Wilkes Booth slipped behind Lincoln and shot him in the head. hat is the 13th amendment? the United States Constitution officially abolished and continues to prohibit slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. What was Freedman’s Bureau? An agency created by the government that helped and protected newly freed african americans find jobs, homes, education, and a better life. What is Reconstruction? the time period after the civil war when the south was rebuilding. What was Lincolns Plan? -former confederate states would be readmitted to the union if 10% of their citizens took a loyalty oath and the state agreed to ratify the 13th amendment which outlawed slavery. ot put into effect because lincoln was assassinated. What was the wade-davis bill? in response to Lincolns plan Republicans rammed a bill thorugh congress stating that for a southern state to be readmitted into the Union 50%of its voters had to take an oath of allegiance to the U. S. it also demanded stronger safe-guards for emancipation. What was the congressional-reconstruction? the return of 11 ex-confederates to high offices and the passage of the black codes by southern legislatures angered the republicans in congress so that they adopted a plan that was harsher on southern whites and more protective f freed blacks. What was the Civil Rights Act 1866? passed by congress on 9th april 1866 over the veto of president andrew johnson. the act declared that all persons born in the united states were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition. What was Johnsons Plan? mirrored lincolns plan but omitted 10% plan, issued proclamation of amnesty but johnson ended up pardoning many former confederates. johnson favored quick reconstruction and wanted former confederate states to return as soon as possible What were Black Codes? Laws or codes passed in the southern states during Reconstruction that greatly limited the freedom of former slaves. What was the Reconstruction proclamation? (Dec. 1863) issued by Lincoln: offered full pardon to Southerners who would take oath of allegiance to the Union and acknowledge emancipation. What is the 14th Amendment? It gave Citizenship for African Americans, Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, Denied former confederate officials from holding national or state office, rejected confederate debts. What was the Urban League? Civil rights group that advocated against racial discrimination. What was the Reconstruction Act? In (1867) act placing Southern states under military rule and barring former supporters of the Confederacy from voting. what is the purchase of alaska? In December, 1866, the U. S. offered to take Alaska from Russia. Russia was eager to give it up, as the fur resources had been exhausted, and, expecting friction with Great Britain, they preferred to see defenseless Alaska in U. S. hands. Called Sewards Folly and Sewards Icebox, the purchase was made in 1867 for $7,200,000 and gave the U. S. Alaskas resources of fish, timber, oil and gold. What is military reconstruction? In response to white efforts to undermine Reconstruction, the federal government established military rule over the former confederate states what are carpetbaggers? northern whites who moved to the south and served as republican leaders during reconstruction What was the klu klux klan? A secret organization that used terrorist tactics in an attempt to restore white supremacy in the South after the Civil War. What was the 15th amendment? Ratified 1870. One of the Reconstruction Amendments. Provided that no government in the United States shall prevent a citizen from voting based on the citizens race, color, or previous condition of servitude What was no women’s vote? when women didn’t have the right to vote What are scalawags? Former slave masters were angered at the sight of former slaves holding office. They lashed out against the freedmen’s white allies. What were the Force Acts? 1870 and 1871. Congress was outraged by the Ku Klux Klan. The acts allowed federal troops to ‘stamp’ them out. What is the Tenure of Office Act? Passed by congress, over-riding Johnson’s veto. The president now had to secure the consent of the senate before he could remove any of his appointees already approved by the senate. Who was Thaddeus Stevens? Persecutor againt Johnson in his court case in the Supreme Court. What happened in 1867 to African Americans? they gained the right to suffrage, Southern black men seized the initiative n began to organize politically. They gained positions in congress and in the house of reps. They were also elected as delegates to the constitutional convention, Who was Hiram Revels? one of the first black senators; took Davis place in the Senate Who was Blanche K. Bruce? African American senator from Mississippi. WHY was Johnson Impeached? Pres. Johnson fired Edwin Stanton so congress impeached him. Compromise of 1877was passed by ? passed by Congress in 1877, set up an electoral commission consisting of 15 men selected from the Senate, the House of Representatives, and the Supreme Court. It was made to determine which party would win the election. The committee finally determined, without opening the ballots from the 3 disputed states, that the Republicans had been victorious in the disputed ballots from the three states, giving the Republicans the presidency.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Drain Cleaner Can Dissolve Glass

Drain Cleaner Can Dissolve Glass Just about everyone knows many acids are corrosive. For example, hydrofluoric acid can dissolve glass. Did you know strong bases can be corrosive, too? An example of a base sufficiently corrosive to eat glass is sodium hydroxide (NaOH), which is a common solid drain cleaner. You can test this for yourself by setting a glass container in hot sodium hydroxide, but you need to be extremely careful. Glass Dissolver Sodium hydroxide is perfectly capable of dissolving your skin in addition to glass. Also, it reacts with other chemicals, so you have to be certain you perform this project in a steel or iron container. Test the container with a magnet if you are unsure, because the other metal commonly used in pans, aluminum, reacts vigorously with sodium hydroxide. The sodium hydroxide reacts with the silicon dioxide in glass to form sodium silicate and water: 2NaOH SiO2 → Na2SiO3 H2O Dissolving glass in molten sodium hydroxide probably wont do your pan any favors, so chances are youll want to throw it out when you are done. Neutralize the sodium hydroxide with acid before disposing of the pan or attempting to clean it. If you dont have access to a chemistry lab, this could be achieved with a whole lot of vinegar (weak acetic acid) or a smaller volume of muriatic acid (hydrochloric), or you can wash the sodium hydroxide away with lots and lots of water. You may not be interested in destroying glassware for science, but its still worth knowing why it is important to remove dishes from your sink if you are planning to use solid drain cleaner and why its not a good idea to use more than the recommended amount of the product.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Leadership in Nursing Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Leadership in Nursing - Assignment Example This study will be aimed at addressing the scope and need for development in United Healthcare with the intention to suffice the growing requirements for quality assured medical services within the next decade. Contextually, the study will also exhibit a strategic plan taking into account the aspects of network growth, nurse staffing, resource management and patient satisfaction in order to assist United Healthcare to deliver adequate support to the growing needs of the population. Strategic Planning for United Healthcare United Healthcare has been much concerned towards enhancing its performances by continually delivering proper and effective services to the clients (Patients), especially in the form of health insurance programs. As the organization aspires to improve the quality standards and effectiveness of the medical facilities being rendered to Americans, it becomes highly significant for the company to continually enhance its performances on the basis of particular strategic guidelines. Hence, to meet the rapidly increasing demand of global customers, the organization will need to redesign its strategies in regard to network growth, nurse staffing needs and procedure, management of the resources and quality standards (United Healthcare, 2013). ... However, since the health care needs of the population in America are increasing at a rapid pace, the organization would need to spread its operations or network to a wider extent. In this regard, the unit can establish some more hospitals under its umbrella, especially in the interior parts of the country where lesser numbers of quality health care service providing operators are available. This will further enable the organization to convert its aim of providing quality services to almost every citizen of the country into reality. Furthermore, adding more and more hospitals and health care professionals within its operations will further lead to an enhanced reputation of the organization throughout the country. Spreading its network in the interior regions of the United States, where there are lesser numbers of health care units, will also portray the responsiveness of the organization towards the societal needs; thus, sufficing its vision of responsiveness (United Healthcare, 2013 ; Lighter, 2011). Nurse staffing Nurses are quite a vital part in health care business. As a matter of fact, even though doctors are perceived to be bestowed with the primary role in any of the health care organization or service system, the role and the responsibility of nursing staff are irreplaceable. Nurses are often considered as the ultimate pillars in regard to acquiring maximum customer satisfaction. As stated earlier, with the increase in the demand of the customers for quality services in this sector, the health care units in America are in need to revise their nurse staffing strategies in order to develop an effective set of nursing team that would be able to meet the requirements of the customers with diversity and efficiency. United

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Ronald Ernest Paul Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Ronald Ernest Paul - Essay Example He was criticizing the same Congress in which he was part of it. Many critics observed that the critics from Paul were meant for individual benefits especially as campaign tools. He was quoted in his speech saying, â€Å"I think Congress is about 20 years behind† (Ron Paul’s Speech). In his speech ,he dwelt on the on the need to critically articulate the issues related to foreign and domestic strategy issues, which he said they negatively impacted on the economy and he said the country was headed to a worst economy crisis. It is ironical that Ron Paul’s criticism was on the same congress, which he is part of. He is one of the unsuccessful members of the congress, yet he appears the top critic. Ronald Ernest â€Å"Ron† Paul is one of the renowned United States Congressman and emerged to be repeat presidential candidature, having contented for the presidency in 1988, 2008, and 2012. In the year 1988, he was presidential candidate for Libertarian Party in the 12 years break in the years when he was Republican Congressman. In 2008, Ronald Ernest was presidential nominee for Republican Party. He believes on the supremacy of the Constitution and he never proposes a bill to be approved in the Congress, unless it is provided in the constitution. He is presently contesting for presidency under the nomination for Republican Party in the United States (Schoen & Rasmussen 102). ... 8 contestation for presidency under Republican Party, he has been the chief architect behind advocacy movement Campaign for Liberty and his ideas has been evidence in his speeches, journals, and books. He has become a leading critic in the aspect of civil liberties, gay marriage, taxation policies, foreign policies, health care, entitlements, and abortion. Paul has the believe and understanding that liberties in the market , reducing business regulations and lowering taxes will boost the market strategies ,as well as promoting favorable business environment . According to him, these aspects will have positive impacts on the economy of the United States and also increase employment opportunities within the market environment. He is the chief critic on Federal Reserve, arguing that this will present serious implications on the economy of the country. He said in his speech while in Michigan University addressing students that this will lead to the aspect of bust and boom leading to fina ncial crisis both in the United States and in the global platform. The boom and bust within the economy will promote unethical business practices (Schoen & Rasmussen 89). In his speech he said that, â€Å"The federal government does a lousy job providing the atmosphere necessary to be competitive and be able to compete around the world because they overtax and they over regulateâ€Å". In his entire speech in Michigan, he put more emphasizes on the element of abolishing the Federal Reserve ,an economic entity that he argued that is guilty of collapsing the U.S dollar value and obstructing ,not assisting ,the U.S economy. He said in his speech that the labor policies should be revisited by the Congress where he advocated for a countrywide Right to work policy (Schoen & Rasmussen 123). . He said

Friday, January 24, 2020

Michael Kearns on Henry James Washington Square :: Henry James Washington Square

Michael Kearns on Henry James' Washington Square: Much Ado About Nothing It never fails to amaze me how someone can take a theory and expand on the idea so much that it takes twenty pages to defend his or her thesis. Such as the case with Michael Kearns, an English professor at the University of Texas. In Kearns' journal article that appeared in College English, he cites a student's question regarding Chapter 10 of Washington Square: "Why does the narrator tell us that 'this is all that need be recorded of their conversation'? And why does he tell us that if Catherine's aunt had been present for this conversation, she 'would probably have admitted that it was as well it had not taken place beside the fountain in Washington Square'"? (Kearns 766) Had this question been posed in our class discussion of Washington Square, it would be possible that we would discuss it for a short while and then move on. Not Mr. Kearns instead, he goes on for 19 pages about the questions that his student asked. Granted, there were some but only a few arguments about the questions that I thought Kearns presented well. However, most of the article was cumbersome to me, as the reader, and I questioned whether Kearns was just elaborating on nothing in hopes of being published in an academic journal. Kearns writes that the question that his student posed was valuable for several reasons, among them being that "it demonstrated for the class an act of critical reading reading that goes beyond a novel's characters, plot, setting, symbols, motifs, and so forth to look at the rhetoric of intention embodied in all of the choices that comprise a novel" (Kearns 766). This is a very valid opinion that Kearns has. Somehow in academic readings, it seems that the important things gets left behind as we stress heavily on the listing that Kearns chose. Another valid argument that Kearns had is that the student used naà ¯ve realism in her reading, and therefore showed ethical issues that are part of the human condition (Kearns 766). As a result, Kearns feels that this enhances the reading of the characters: "I assume that readers will accept the invitation to respond, not only ethically but also emotionally" (Kearns 769-770). In conclusion, had Kearns left his argument to a simplistic means, I think that this article would have been fascinating to read.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Development and Growth of Verizon Wireles Essay

Verizon Wireless aspires for manageable development as a wide market leader in wireless services as well as for dominance in major wireless service markets. In both situations, the Verizon Wireless services will have to do critical roles. Verizon Wireless has the capability to establish its dominance in wireless service markets normally through acquisition of other powerful wireless service companies and their services, which are then integrated into a new, bigger organization. Giving training to its workers, enhancing the organizational functions, and the development of fresh innovations then establishes the positions of the different Verizon Wireless services. This logically leads in economies of scale that empowers the company to form a supply network for both the local and global wireless services. If a market is being managed by other grocery stores, Verizon Wireless dedicates its priorities regarding the establishment of a premium sector with its different wireless services. The goal of Verizon Wireless is to sustain the profitability of the company in a manageable way, while at the same time consistently enhancing the organization’s operations. The tactics to attain this includes four aspects:1.Working hard in order to attain a dominant level in powerful wireless service markets2.Emphasizing on getting a great share of the wireless service market sectors. 3.Striving in order to enhance the organization’s efficacy and limit unnecessary expenses in their activities. 4.Consistent development through logical mergers for as long as they are able to establish great shareholder value. In the year 2006, Verizon Wireless was able to experience tremendous improvement in various essential metrics. The inventory was limited from above $50 million down to below $30 million and inventory turns increased from below 15 to more than 25. The expenses of profits, not including the advantage from past miscellaneous expenses and the implemented part of the amortization of untouchable resources, went down from above 70% of earnings to below 70% of earnings. The integration of sales and marketing, research  and technological changes, and general and operational costs was limited from almost $ 400 million down to almost $350 million, while at the same time enhancing on the speed of changes. Verizon Wireless’ total earnings are estimated to have grown from barely reaching $1 million in the late 20th century to almost $ 900 million last year. B. SWOT Analysis of Verizon WirelessStrengths:†¢has wireless technologies and services that have a reputation for gaining a very strong retail. This involves an emphasis for the value of quality, comfort and various range of games and updated wireless technologies and services†¢has expanded tremendously over the past years, and has been in the procedure of growth all over the world. †¢Primary capability relies on the use of information technology (IT) to significantly aid its wireless services and systems. In short, Verizon Wireless can monitor their individual wireless services and their status within the site, or even at other locations. IT also aids Verizon Wireless’ excellent procurement. †¢is able to provide excellent client satisfaction, as the few levels of work would imply lots of time to dedicate to their clients. †¢Its personnel have formulated a powerful legacy within the market. †¢Has the capability to shift direction immediately if its management realizes that their marketing plan is not working properly. †¢has no debts and financial losses. In short the organization can provide excellent wireless technologies and services to clients on a continuous basis. Weaknesses:†¢is one of the biggest organizations in the wireless service industry but has a meager control of its organization, in spite of its advantages in updated wireless technologies. This could result to a decline in profitability in some locations where they have lesser managerial powers. †¢Since Verizon Wireless sells its wireless services and technologies over different markets, the organization does not possess the versatility that some of its recognized rival companies have. †¢Functions al over the world, but its existence can be found in only selected areas all over the world†¢Some of the organization’s less famous locations do not possess market legacy or reputation†¢Some of the organization’s employees do not possess the important wireless service knowledge base in many aspects. †¢Verizon Wireless is still severely hampered to the temporary absences of its employees. †¢The organization’s budget is unstable particularly in the early aspects of a new wireless service product innovation. Opportunities:†¢Taking over, acquisitions, or establishing mergers with other wireless service organizations while prioritizing on powerful markets like North America or Europe. †¢The establishment of new locations and branches provide Verizon Wireless the chances to explore market improvements. This could result to the diversification of the company’s branches. †¢Chances are present for Verizon Wireless to go on with its existing tactic of founding huge extensions all over the globe. †¢Verizon Wireless is continuously growing, with lots of future developments to explore for success. †¢The local personnel of Verizon Wireless are in the process of persuading local wireless service business entities to join them if possible. †¢The rivals of Verizon Wireless may be unable to cope up with the new wireless service innovations particularly the ones that the organization  establishes. Threats:†¢Being a top wireless service organization means that Verizon Wireless is the one to beat in both local and global markets. †¢Being recognized worldwide implies that Verizon Wireless might be immersed to political chaos in the nations where the company has operations. †¢The manufacturing expenses of most wireless services have the chance to decline because of the limited manufacturing costs. Production expenses go down due to the outsourcing to low-cost countries all over the world. This situation could result to fighting in prices, which in turn would lead in the fall of prices in different levels. Tremendous price rivalry must absolutely be classified as a threat. †¢The current changes in wireless service technology which could probably alter the markets might test the organization’s capability to cope up to these developments†¢A slight change in the priority of a huge rival might destroy any market dominance that Verizon Wireless has attained over its existence. This could lead the organization to specialize in quick response but excellent quality wireless services to local companies. This would place intense pressure on the organization’s employees to be knowledgeable with the current developments in wireless services where possible. C. External EnvironmentThe wireless service industry can be found at one of the biggest suburban areas and the most densely populated areas all over the globe. Therefore, this implies that with regards to the territorial elements, Verizon Wireless has been able to properly select an environment or site that may give tremendous potential for the wireless service industry to be come famous. The market segments in America represent Verizon Wireless’ biggest sales and marketing networks which cover local and domestic stores and mass markets. Suppliers represent Verizon Wireless’ second biggest American network and normally sell to both custom and online markets. In Europe and North  America, Verizon Wireless’ market share remains significantly high. It controls more than 50 global stores found all over the world. The organization also utilizes Internet shops as a place to sell its products. This is done through the utilization of Internet advertisements and product discounts. The organization has the power to establish awareness of its products and other technologies through media announcements, international communication initiatives and Verizon Wireless based online services. The organization also makes sure to get opinions from its consumers through consumer studies. The organization then utilizes these opinions to polish its product enhancement initiatives and marketing programs. D. SWOT Analysis EvaluationBased on the SWOT Analysis on Verizon Wireless, budget management is the largest concern for the company. The proper means of using the budget must be carefully analyzed by the company. The study of promoting endeavors has to be done due to the feedback that can inform the organization as to what promotional tools are the correct ones to use. These assessment outcomes can secure Verizon Wireless from wasting its financial resources for the incorrect promotional tools and procedures. Monitoring or assessment involves the application of tools to evaluate promotional appropriateness. The plan can be assessed with regards to the development in sales that is attained at a quarterly and yearly basis. This would immediately connect to the goal of establishing demand and improving sales. Nevertheless, it is essential to put into emphasis that it can be hard to manage for other elements that are likely to bear effects in the market industry, which include the choices of rival companies to improve prices, a change in client likes, or a shift in the entire demand. Luckily, other tools can be utilized to evaluate promotional appropriateness, which connects upon the variance of the marketing goals that have been mentioned earlier. For instance, surveys can be done, which ask regarding the wireless services, identify any development in behaviours regarding the wireless services, and identify whether or not there has been a development in client information or awareness of the wireless services. E. Corporate Level Strategy AnalysisThe primary goal of the corporate level strategy of Verizon Wireless is to guarantee that the company will be recognized in the industry as a business entity that gives excellent wireless services for its target market. Aside from this, Verizon Wireless has the corporate mission to determine the most effective strategy to be utilized in order to transform the wireless service industry into becoming more recognized by the public consumers. Verizon Wireless has four primary corporate strategies:A)Manage its position as one of the primary businesses regarding wireless services. Being the leader of the wireless service industry will propel Verizon Wireless to earn the respect and trust of its customers. Therefore, the organization will have the power to widen its functions through the acquisition of other wireless service organizations. B)Become more financially stable than other wireless service organizations. The raw technologies that are being used in the production of wireless services have to be able to attain excellent standards. If this is achieved, Verizon Wireless will have the capability to become more financially stable as against other rival wireless service organizations. C)Establish an excellent wireless service technology profile, with Verizon Wireless as the global label of flagship; andD)Establishing its freedom. Being a free organization will enable Verizon Wireless to go on with its reputation of excellence in both its wireless services and products by establishing fresh innovations and measures. F. Business Level Strategy AnalysisIn the situation of Verizon Wireless, its business level strategy that it utilizes to propel itself in the wireless service industry involves the utilization of advertisements. To be able to inform the target of the organization regarding the presence of the wireless service industry, Verizon Wireless utilizes media advertising, online and other media and news advertisements. These marketing procedures are supportive to propel Verizon Wireless at the top of the wireless service  industry. Business Level Strategies – PriorityThe primary emphasis of the business level strategy is to enable Verizon Wireless to be recognized in the market. In order to attain this, the utilization of an excellent business plan through an effective business interaction plan is always put into emphasis. In addition, interaction is an essential element of the company. Through excellent communication, Verizon Wireless is able to transfer knowledge and learn from each other’s capabilities and knowledge. In this specific business level strategy of Verizon Wireless, the essential aspect that is given priority is the advertisement and interactive campaign of the company. Normally, advertisement or interactive campaigns of Verizon Wireless are well known as an open sponsorship of given goods, products and any concepts through the utilization of any channels of interaction. In this respect, there are various types of channels that are utilized for advertisements and interactive campaign objectives of Verizon Wireless. Generally, in this IMC perspective, the emphasis is put on advertisement and wireless services promotion. Business Level Strategy – By SegmentThe excellent business level strategy of Verizon Wireless reflects a continuous process and style to all its activities. The business level strategies of the company arrive to signify the new emphasis of its marketing field in incorporating the interactive elements to connect to all of the company’s clients and not just its basic consumers (Levinson, 1998). Aside from this the business level strategy proceeds with the objective of determining and improving the mutual connection of the organization to its clients by giving means to establish relationship with clients through advertisements. The usual consumer market of Verizon Wireless involves international clients and local clients as well. In this way, in order to guarantee that the target market is able to know the presence of Verizon Wireless, the business level strategy utilized by the company is putting priority to each of the target market in both local and global scenes. Quarterly Business Level Strategy- SalesIn this business level strategy, Verizon Wireless implements the marketing procedure in attaining interactions and promotion of the organization and the wireless services that it gives. This business level strategy is implemented quarterly. In performing this, the following interactive media is used:†¢TV, print, and communication mediaSome of the marketing channels that are normally utilized by Verizon Wireless in order to make their wireless services well known are the TV, print, and communication media. In connection with the company, it also utilizes these media channels in order to be recognized by various clients anytime and in any place. AdvertisingA very famous process of promotion used by Verizon Wireless is through advertisements. Advertisements of the company are very expensive but like all marketing plans, it is not classified as a cost but an asset by the company. The expenses for excellent advertisements may be significantly high but the good outcomes are all worth it for Verizon Wireless (Silk, 2006). Advertisement is the right approach for Verizon Wireless for the similar reason of improving awareness and making an impact towards client perceptions. Also, advertisement through media can be felt by larger groups of people all over the world, therefore the information is transferred to a larger part of the target market of Verizon Wireless. Quarterly Business Level Strategy- Public RelationsPublic relations and publicity are different plans established by Verizon Wireless to inform or secure the organization’s reputation or its wireless services. The benefit of this mechanism is that it improves the organization’s reputation and it allows Verizon Wireless to be recognized due to the excellent image than its rivals. In this way, Verizon Wireless often does a publicly connected endeavor every quarter to guarantee that the organization follows its social roles in the site. One of the excellent means to implement this is through sponsorship. The company often sponsors a well-known organization every quarter. G. Structure and Control Systems AnalysisA matrix framework overlays two  company forms in order to exhibit the advantages of both. Some world companies implement a matrix framework that mixes territorial with product teams. The product-based framework enables Verizon Wireless to explore world economies of scale, whereas the territorial framework manages information close to the necessities of each and every nation. The company also possesses degrees of matrix framework, implying that every divisional team of Verizon Wireless has particular roles, but some topics must be decided in unison across all of these teams. Rather than mixing two separate frameworks, some matrix frameworks overlap an operational framework with project groups. Workers at Verizon Wireless are tasked to a cross-operational project group, yet they also belong to an established operational group to which they come back when a project is finished (Cameron, 2004). The matrix framework of Verizon Wireless is implemented through the hiring and recruitment of new workers whose knowledge and work ethics jive with the culture. Verizon Wireless was going into a new market that will recruit a number of highly qualified people from other organizations to support the new initiatives. The matrix framework of Verizon Wireless’ organizational structure may need for getting new workers aboard. This procedure usually happens immediately after the workers are recruited, and may be a means to slowly teach the different functional teams with a new culture. A matrix framework is implemented systematically or informally, probably through training of new workers or through a sequence of interactions to current workers at Verizon Wireless. A matrix framework is helpful in the company and management of shared value mechanisms (Hiatt, 2003). Therefore, culture at Verizon Wireless is shared through obvious or invisible ways and studies indicate that invisible means of interaction seem to be more efficient in altering culture than visible means of interaction and the visible and invisible interaction is depended on to give outside justification for the matrix framework and encourage company workers at Verizon Wireless to adjust to the new company practices and ethics. Nelson (2005) mentions that there are three fundamental procedures of decision-making: the top-down method, the democratic method, and the  subculture method. Top-down or implemented decision-making does not normally happen in the company structure of Verizon Wireless, because their management knows that it normally leads in developments that are hard to manage, even though they may be effortless to tell to the employees. In short, they know that top-down methods may lead in forced compliance from the employees of Verizon Wireless, but in reality they do not totally agree to it. Therefore, Verizon Wireless implements the democratic methods to decision-making which are hard and eat up a lot of time, but the dedication and trust to the development is more effective than an altered work setting which enhances outputs and results of Verizon Wireless. Procedures of assessment of the decision-making structure of Verizon Wireless involves monitoring, evaluating the efficiency, or comparison of basic elements with original aspects identified during the inner company investigation. A development in the major frequency mixed with a dormancy of company efficiency at Verizon Wireless could imply that the major factors were not identified properly. The culture, in short, has developed with low or negative effects on company efficiency. It is clear, nevertheless, that culture can either support or significantly delay a selected tactic and further comprehension of cultural inspirations may be tantamount to entire comprehension of efficient strategic development. H. RecommendationsMajority of the triumphant activities of Verizon Wireless rely tremendously on excellent interpersonal interaction and relationship among the individuals and the entire company. Bounded with a unified objective, the control of developments at Verizon Wireless must be always coordinated with the individuals that will benefit or workers that will immediately feel the impacts. Discussing the objective of development at Verizon Wireless must be always important. Interaction is the highly recommended way that the managers at Verizon Wireless must use. Obtaining the trust of the employees at Verizon Wireless and managing a smooth professional relationship must always be emphasized, because it is always a critical factor to an excellent flow of company functions. But all these will be put to naught if topics and dilemmas brought about by improper governance and added with the misunderstandings between managers and workers  of Verizon Wireless will emerge along the way. Handling the interaction and knowledge that Verizon Wireless utilizes in its everyday functions must be prioritized in the company. Knowledge is the blood stream of the organization on which every worker; employee and manager strive on. It must be utilized in order to attain the needs of the customers of Verizon Wireless. This is the reason why there must be always an appropriate interaction and knowledge management flow within the company. Also, the impact of a development affects workers of Verizon Wireless as well as the company for a long period of time. The necessities and traits must be always taken into consideration in interacting planning and making choices within Verizon Wireless (Rickards, 1999). Direct communication between the management and the workers must be effective enough to provide solutions to problems and potential threats to the employees of Verizon Wireless particularly on the issues and results of the desired development. Interaction between and among the employees and managers of the Verizon Wireless must be always emphasized in order to give a well-operating company function within and outside its limits. WORKS CITED Cameron, E, 2004. Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide to the Models, Tools & Techniques of Organizational Change. Kogan PageHiatt, J, 2003. Change Management. Prosci ResearchLevinson, J, 1998. Guerrilla Marketing: Secrets for Making Big Profits from Your Small Business. Houghton Mifflin; 3rd editionNelson, K, 2005. The Change Management Pocket Guide. Change Guides, LLCRickards, T, 1999. Creativity and the Management of Change. Blackwell Publishing LimitedSilk, A, 2006. What Is Marketing? Harvard Business School Press

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Aeronautical Pioneers The Story of Orville and Wilbur Wright

Imagine life without airplanes. Imagine a life without the security they gives us from conflicts and wars, without the ability to send packages and mail swiftly across long distances, or without the ability to travel anywhere in the world in a relatively short amount of time. Luckily we don’t have to worry about any of these things most of the time, all thanks to the â€Å"pioneers of modern aviation,† Orville and Wilbur Wright (â€Å"Orville Wright† 2). Through their successful invention and flight of the first powered aircraft, we can live better lives than what was before ever possible. Therefore, I feel it is only common sense for them to be inducted into the History Hall of Fame. To further uphold the previous statement on this matter, I†¦show more content†¦Much later, after accomplishing much in the latter part of his life, which I again will address in a later paragraph, Orville underwent two heart attacks, and alas, he died of the second on January 30 in the year 1948, and is currently buried in Dayton, Ohio (â€Å"Orville Wright† 2). Also, neither Orville nor Wilbur received matrimony during their years upon this planet (â€Å"Orville Wright† 2). The Wright brothers had many inspirations for achieving for achieving greatness in aeronautical engineering. Milton Wright, the father of the Wright brothers, came home one day, when they were young, to give Orville and Wilbur a small, functional, and helicopter toy with real moving parts, helping to develop the brother’s love for aeronautical engineering (â€Å"Wilbur Wright† 1). Also, Orville grew an interest in kites, and even began to build them after moving in 1881 to Richmond, Indiana, helping to affirm his interests in flight (â€Å"Orville Wright† 1). Roger E. Bilstein states that then later, in 1899, very seriously the brothers began to analyze and study-up on the matters of flying and engineering in that subject (Bilstein 509), and also, according to â€Å"Orville Wright,† kept up current with intelligence regarding this matter (â€Å"Orville Wright† 1). Another inspiration, Otto Lilienthal, had work of which the Wright brothers studi ed, regarding aeronautical engineering, and became a heavy reason why, after his death, they began to dabble in flightShow MoreRelatedAeronautical Pioneers: The Story of Orville and Wilbur Wright652 Words   |  3 Pagesthanks to the â€Å"pioneers of modern aviation,† Orville and Wilbur Wright (â€Å"Orville Wright† 2). Through their successful invention and flight of the first powered aircraft, we can live better lives than what was before ever possible. Therefore, I feel it is only common sense for them to be inducted into the History Hall of Fame. To further uphold the previous statement on this matter, I will tell of their life story, what ideals, principles, and motivations inspired these aeronautical intellects to Aeronautical Pioneers The Story of Orville and Wilbur Wright Imagine life without airplanes. Imagine a life without the security they gives us from conflicts and wars, without the ability to send packages and mail swiftly across long distances, or without the ability to travel anywhere in the world in a relatively short amount of time. Luckily we don’t have to worry about any of these things most of the time, all thanks to the â€Å"pioneers of modern aviation,† Orville and Wilbur Wright (â€Å"Orville Wright† 2). Through their successful invention and flight of the first powered aircraft, we can live better lives than what was before ever possible. Therefore, I feel it is only common sense for them to be inducted into the History Hall of Fame. To further uphold the previous statement on this matter, I†¦show more content†¦Later in life before famously developing the powered aircraft, they both went on to collaborate in owning two different newspapers, both of which failed (â€Å"The Wright Family†), a nd even later in 1892, they again, while both having an extraordinary passion for fixing and selling bicycles, collaborated in opening up their own shop concerning that passion (â€Å"Wilbur Wright† 1). Later, after developing the first powered aircraft in 1903, of which I will elaborate more on in a later paragraph, and demonstrating it with success in 1909, they grew a business off of their triumph, became very wealthy, even beginning to build a family estate in Dayton, Ohio with their wealth (â€Å"Orville Wright† 2), and even through first first developing stages, the brothers shared credit for everything (â€Å"Wilbur Wright† 1). Even though they were brothers and business partners in the aeronautical engineering industry, May 25, 1910 became the day where the Wright brothers flew with each other, for six minutes, for the first and only time ever in their lives (â€Å"Orville Wright† 2). That same day also became the day where the 82-year-old fat her of these pioneers in history ever flew with one of his sons, happening to be Orville (â€Å"Orville Wright† 2). Almost exactly two years later in Dayton, Ohio, on May 30, 1912, of a typhoid fever, the unfortunate death of Wilbur Wright cameShow MoreRelatedAeronautical Pioneers: The Story of Orville and Wilbur Wright1639 Words   |  7 Pagesthanks to the â€Å"pioneers of modern aviation,† Orville and Wilbur Wright (â€Å"Orville Wright† 2). Through their successful invention and flight of the first powered aircraft, we can live better lives than what was before ever possible. Therefore, I feel it is only common sense for them to be inducted into the History Hall of Fame. To further uphold the previous statement on this matter, I will tell of their life story, what ideals, principles, and motivations inspired these aeronautical intellects to

Sunday, December 22, 2019

The European Colonization Of Africa - 1461 Words

The European colonization of Africa, also known as the Scramble for Africa, Partition of Africa, or Conquest of Africa, occurred between the 1870s and 1900s, and was the invasion, occupation, colonization, and annexation of African territory by European powers during a period of New Imperialism. European control of the continent increased from 10 percent (1870) to 90 percent (1914), with only three territories, Saguia el-Hamra, which was later integrated into Spanish Sahara, Ethiopia and Liberia remaining independent of Europe’s control. There were many reasons for the European colonization of Africa, including economic and political motives, with the Berlin Conference serving as a catalyst. Africans resisted the European invasions of their lands, with the two main methods of opposition were guerilla warfare and direct military engagement. European influence on Africa still remains today, though these influences are generally negative and hurt Africa’s overall developme nt. The imperatives of capitalist industrialization, including the call for guaranteed sources of raw materials, especially copper, cotton, rubber, tea, and tin (European consumers had become accustomed to, and thus depended on these resources), and the search for guaranteed markets and profitable investment outlets, which territories like the gold and diamond-rich Egypt and South Africa provided, caused the European conquest for Africa. Therefore the primary reason for European colonization in Africa wasShow MoreRelatedThe European Colonization Of Africa1855 Words   |  8 PagesMorel noticed something that would change the way the modern world viewed the colonization of Africa and the supposed â€Å"humanitarian† work there forever (Hochschild 1). Morel worked for an English shipping company that was responsible for cargo going between the Congo Free State and Belgium. What Morel noticed was that ships from Africa were filled with rich, exotic goods like rubber and ivory, but the ships headed to Africa from Belgium were filled with military members and various firearms and ammunitionRead MoreEuropean Nations And The Colonization Of Africa1492 Words   |  6 PagesAs we know so far, Africa has a long history of being faced with Conquest, Colonization, and Military Invasions from Europe since the early 1970’s and up to the 1900’s. Many were standing against the idea of being captured or colonized by these Europeans leaders and countries. The only two countries that have not been touched or colonized by Europe is Ethiopia and Liberia, unfortunately (Fortunately). Most of the Africa’s countries has been touched by European conquerors. There are three main factorsRead MoreEuropean Imperialism And The Colonization Of Africa984 Words   |  4 PagesAmongst the 1870s and 1900, Africa confronted European imperialist hostility, political pressures, military assaults, and ultimately the conquest and colonization. At the same time, African civilizations put up numerous methods of resistance against the effort to inhabit their countries and enforce foreign control. By the early twentieth century, however, much of Africa, except Ethiopia and Liberia, had been inhabited by European powers. The European imperialist drive into Africa was encouraged by threeRead MoreEuropean Justification of Colonization of Asia and Africa Essay828 Words   |  4 PagesThe principle justification offered by the Europeans for their colonization of Asia Africa was the moral and technological superiority of the western world. As the Europeans saw it, the spread of the European way of life would substantially increase living standards for the c olonized. While economic reasons were obviously the primary impetus for colonial expansion, the Europeans believed that they were not only improving the natives’ conditions, but they were saving their mortal souls by bringingRead MoreLong-term Effects of European Colonization on Africa Essay1265 Words   |  6 PagesAfrica has had a long and tumultuous road of colonization and decolonization the rush to colonize Africa started in the 17th century with the discovery of the vast amounts of gold, diamonds, and rubber with colonization hitting a fever pitch during World War I. However, the repercussions of colonization have left deep wounds that still remain unhealed in the 21st century. Early on, European nations such as Britain, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Germany and Belgium scrambled for territories. CountriesRead MoreThe Clash of Races Africa has always been the centre of colonization for many European countries.900 Words   |  4 PagesThe Clash of Races Africa has always been the centre of colonization for many European countries. With its colonization came stereotypes of African’s being inhumane, primitive and savage in comparison to the humanity of the civilized Europeans. The tradition model simplifies the stereotypes into Africans are bad and Europeans are good. Fortunately, it is not as clear cut as this. In Things Fall Apart, by Chinua Achebe, both the Igbo of the Umuofia and the British of Europe have good sides and darkRead MoreColonialism in Africa911 Words   |  4 PagesLadonya Gatling World Civilizations II Mr. Mitchell 10:00-10:50 (MWF) Colonialism in Africa Neither imperialism nor colonialism is a simple act of accumulation nor acquisition†¦ Out of imperialism, notions about culture were classified, reinforced, criticized or rejected† (BBC World Service). The nineteenth century saw massive changes in Africa. Some were driven by famine and disease (BBC World Service). Some changes were the result of the territorial ambitions of African rulers. As the centuryRead MoreHistory And Events That Happened During The Colonization Of Africa Essay1113 Words   |  5 Pagesthe past are important to a country, as it has helped them develop and change who they are in the modern day. The colonization of Africa in the late 1800s-early 1900s are an example of this. The actions and events inflicted on Africa by the European powers have helped shape the continent of modern-day Africa. These events are largely significant to historians and the people of Africa, such as the first genocide of the 20th century, committed by the German powers in now what is modern day NamibiaRead MoreAnalysis Of Basil Davidson s The Black Slave Trade1248 Words   |  5 PagesOver generations, Africa has been stripped from its truth and robbed from its historic contributions. Although the people of Africa greatly contributed to the world with their countless genius innovations, their recognition was nearly nonexistent. The endured hardships that were rooted by the Europeans during and after the Trans-Atlantic slave trade has led many to believe that the continent of Africa was inhabited by degenerates. This seemed to have become the single story of Africa. Basil DavidsonRead MoreImperialism Dbq Ap European History846 Words   |  4 Pages1880 to 1914, European powers went after overseas empires in Africa. The governments and political leaders of the European powers believed that this colonization of the African empires was necessary to maintain their global influence. A second group of people supposed that African colonization was the result of the greedy Capitalists who \only cared for new resources and markets. The third group o f people claimed it to be their job to enlighten and educate the uncivilized people of Africa. Although the

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Themes in Yeats’ Poetry Free Essays

Themes in Yeats’  poetry You can find many themes in Yeats’ poetry. Pick what suits your own study from the themes, comments and quotes listed below. There are 86 quotes used to illustrate themes on this page (although some of them are from poems outside the current OCR selection for AS Level). We will write a custom essay sample on Themes in Yeats’ Poetry or any similar topic only for you Order Now You will need only a short selection of these. 1. The theme of death or old age and what it leaves behind. Death of Patriotism, leaving selfishness as the norm: ‘Romantic Ireland’s dead and gone, It’s with O’Leary in the grave’ [September 1913] Death as useless sacrifice, Home Rule might be granted: ‘Was it needless death after all? For England may keep faith For all that is done and said’ [Easter 1916] A man in old age alienated vibrant youthfulness: ‘The young in one another’s arms, birds in the trees – Those dying generations – at their song’   [Sailing to Byzantium] Death of innocence: ‘The ceremony of innocence is drowned’ [Second Coming] The self in old age, forsaken by beauty: ‘when I awake some day to find they have flown away’ [Wild Swans] Death chosen out of a sense of despair: ‘A waste of breath the years behind, in balance with this life, this death’ [Airman] Death and destruction during civil war: ‘A man is killed, or a house burned †¦ the empty house†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ [Stare’s Nest] Demise of the Aristocracy and despair at the vanity of human grandeur: ‘We the great gazebo built’ [Memory] Old age and the remnants of a confined life: ‘Picture and book remain’ [Acre] In old age, contempt for the present, defiant admiration for ancestry: ‘Cast your mind on other days That we in coming days may be Still the indomitable Irishry’   [Under Ben Bulben] Facing death with contempt for overstated ceremony: ‘No marble, no conventional phrase’ [Under Ben Bulben] Death provides a sanctuary from conflict and hatred: ‘Savage indignation there Cannot lacerate his breast’ [Swift’s Epitaph] 2. The theme of disintegration, chaos, sudden change: They have gone about the world like wind’   [September 1913] ‘scatter wheeling in great broken rings Upon their clamorous wings’ [Wild Swans] ‘I have looked upon those brilliant creatures, And now my heart is sore. All’s changed’ [Wild Swans] ‘this tumult in the clouds’ [Airman] ‘All changed, changed utterly: A terrible beauty is born’   [Easter 1916] ‘Enchanted to a stone To trouble the living stream’ [Ea ster 1916] ‘Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold; Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world’ [Second Coming] ‘Consume my heart away; sick with desire And fastened to a dying animal It knows not what it is’   [Sailing to Byzantium] ‘A man is killed, or a house burned, Yet no clear fact to be discerned’ [Stare’s Nest] 3. Yeats poetry explored nature under four headings: Transience in nature’s beauty: ‘A shadow of cloud on the stream Changes minute by minute’ [Easter 1916] ‘By what lake’s edge or pool Delight men’s eyes when I awake some day To find they have flown away? ’ [Wild Swans] ‘The salmon-falls, the mackerel-crowded seas, Fish, flesh, or fowl, commend all summer long Whatever is begotten, born, and dies’ [Sailing to Byzantium] ‘But a raving autumn shears Blossom from the summer’s wreath’   [Memories] Paradoxically, Yeats saw nature as immortal in comparison to humans: ‘Their hearts have not grown old; Passion or conquest, wander where they will, Attend upon them still. [Wild Swans] The radiance of nature’s beauty: ‘I hear lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore;’ [Inisfree] ‘The trees are in their autumn beauty, The woodland paths are dry, Under the October twilight the wa ter Mirrors a still sky’   [Wild Swans] ‘The long-legged moor-hens dive, And hens to moor-cocks call’ [Easter] ‘An acre of green grass For air and exercise’ [Acre] The unattractive side of nature: ‘The bees build in the crevices Of loosening masonry, and there The mother birds bring grubs and flies’   [Stare] ‘while all about it Reel shadows of the indignant desert birds’ [Second Coming] 4. Yeats explored the theme of immortality in various spheres. You can contrast the following quotes and issues with the many quotes and references to mortality highlighted in the quotes for themes one, two and three above. Politics—in a paradoxical way the Rising has changed politics and this force for change has become an immortal and steadfast national symbol: ‘Now and in time to be, Wherever green is worn, Are changed, changed utterly: A terrible beauty is born’ [Easter 1916] Natural beauty—the swans as a species are ageless in comparison to Yeats: ‘Their hearts have not grown old; Passion or conquest, wander where they will, Attend upon them still. ’ [Wild Swans] The cycles of history [perpetually repeating millennial patterns]: ‘And what rough beast, its hour come round at last, Slouches towards Bethlehem to be born? [Second Coming] The soul and art transcend time: ‘Once out of nature I shall never take My bodily form from any natural thing, But such a form as Grecian goldsmiths make to s ing†¦ Of what is past, or passing, or to come’ [Sailing to Byzantium] 5. The quest for truth is fundamental, whether experienced through the emotional self, reason, imagination or at the expense of sanity. Intuitive truth: ‘I hear it in the deep heart’s core’ [Inisfree] The pursuit of national ideals at the cost of public ridicule: ‘â€Å"Some woman’s yellow hair Has maddened every mother’s son†: They weighed so lightly what they gave’ [September 1913] Pursuit of beauty and truth by a questioning spirit: ‘Among what rushes will they build, By what lake’s edge or pool Delight men’s eyes when I awake some day To find they have flown away? [Wild Swans] Truth believed in by political fanatics: ‘Hearts with one purpose alone Through summer and winter seem Enchanted to a stone’ [Easter 1916] Truth that is fanatical and yet unemotional: ‘Too long a sacrifice Can make a stone of the hear t’ [Easter 1916] Truth that is emotional, imaginative and philosophical: ‘A lonely impulse of delight Drove to this tumult in the clouds; I balanced all, brought all to mind’ [Irish Airman] Truth that is prophetic and yet based on historical cycles: ‘Surely some revelation is at hand; Surely the Second Coming is at hand’ [Second Coming] Cold, rational analysis of falsehood leading to the truth: ‘We had fed the heart on fantasies, The heart’s grown brutal from the fare; More Substance in our enmities Than in our love’ [Stare] Truth attained through educating the imagination with art: ‘Nor is there singing school but studying Monuments of its own magnificence’ [Sailing to Byzantium] Truth that is philosophical, the wisdom of old age: ‘Dear shadows, now you know it all, All the folly of a fight With a common wrong or right. The innocent and the beautiful. Have no enemy but time’ [Memories] Truth that eludes reason and imagination: ‘Neither loose imagination, Nor the mill of the mind Consuming its rag and bone, Can make the truth known’ [Acre] Contrast between a passionate confession and political truths: ‘And maybe what they say is true Of war and war’s alarms, But O that I were young again And held her in my arms’ [Politics] Truth that is sentimental, defiant, emotional: ‘Cast your mind on other days That we in coming days may be Still the indomitable Irishry’ [Ben Bulben] 6. Yeats had various visions of the model Irish society. Primitive, Celtic, peasant and rural: ‘I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree, And a small cabin build there, of clay and wattles made’ [Inisfree] Romantic, patriotic and heroic: ‘Yet they were of a different kind, The names that stilled your childish play, They have gone about the world like wind’ [September 1913] Pastoral and aesthetic: ‘But now they drift on the still water, Mysterious, beautiful’ [Wild Swans] Comely and simple: ‘My county is Kiltartan Cross, My countrymen Kiltartan’s poor’ [Irish Airman] Aristocratic, classical and youthful: ‘and speak of that old Georgian mansion, †¦ recall That table and the talk of youth, Two girls in silk kimonos, both Beautiful, one a gazelle’ [Memories] Heroic, feudal and ancestral: ‘Sing the peasantry, and then Hard-riding country gentlemen, The holiness of monks, and after Porter-drinkers’ randy laughter; Sing the lords and ladies gay That were beaten into the clay Through seven heroic centuries; Cast your mind on other days That we in coming days may be Still the indomitable Irishry’   [Under Ben Bulben’s Head] 7. Yeats explored conflicting dualities, often counterbalancing the ideal and the real: The beauty of nature versus the sombre monotony of city existence: ‘I hear lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore; While I stand on the roadway, or on the pavements grey’ [Inisfree] The meanness of municipal policy versus the generosity of patriots: ‘For men were born to pray and save: Romantic Ireland’s dead and gone’   [September 1913] Mortality of the self versus immortality of the swan species: ‘And now my heart is sore†¦ Their hearts have not grown old’   [Wild Swans] Major Robert Gregory’s ambiguous approach to fighting for his country; this involves inversion of emotion: ‘Those that I fight I do not hate, Those that I guard I do not love’ [Irish Airman] The immortality of political heroes versus the fickleness of politics: ‘Yet they were of a different kind, The names that stilled your childish playâ€⠄¢ [September 1913] ‘Yet I number him in the song; He, too, has resigned his part In the casual comedy’   [Easter 1916] The inversion of the relationship between commitment and morality: ‘The best lack all conviction, while the worst Are full of passionate intensity’   [Second Coming] Soul versus Body and Nature versus Art: ‘O sages †¦be the singing-masters of my soul. Consume my heart away†¦ Once out of nature I shall never take My bodily form from any natural thing’   [Sailing to Byzantium] Love versus hatred, moral inversion: ‘More substance in our enmities Than in our love’   [Stare] Time versus beauty: ‘But a raving autumn shears Blossom from the summer’s wreath†¦ The innocent and the beautiful Have no enemy but time’   [Memories] Love versus politics as a shaper of human destiny: ‘How can I, that girl standing there, My attention fix On Roman or on Russian Or on Spanish politics’ [Politics] The contemporary versus the historical, the plebs versus the aristocracy, the masses versus ancestors: ‘Base-born products of base beds †¦ Still the indomitable Irishry’   [Under Ben Bulben] Two contradictory positions on the duality of life and death, one neutral, the other favouring death as a refuge from the stresses of life: ‘Cast a cold eye On life, on death ’ [Under Ben Bulben] ‘SWIFT has sailed into his rest; Savage indignation there Cannot lacerate his breast’   [Swift’s Epitaph] 8. Yeats made various protests against reality during his life: Alienation from city life in London: ‘While I stand on the roadway, or on the pavements grey’ [Inishfree] Despondency at short sighted and self-serving civic attitudes regarding the 1913 lockout and hypocritical religious devotion: ‘ You have dried the marrow from the bone? For men were born to pray and save: Romantic Ireland’s dead and gone, It’s with O’Leary in the grave’ [September 1913] Hurt at disrespect for the memory of political martyrs: ‘You’d cry, â€Å"Some woman’s yellow hair Has maddened every mother’s son†: They weighed so lightly what they gave’ [September 1913] Disillusionment at war: ‘Those that I fight I do not hate, Those that I guard I do not love;’ [Airman] Disgust at insincere nationalism, patriotic bluster: ‘Being certain that they and I But lived where motley is worn†¦ The casual comedy†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ã‚   [Easter 1916] Criticism of political fanaticism: ‘Too long a sacrifice Can make a stone of the heart. ’ [Easter 1916] Disillusion at war, lack of civic responsibility and an apocalyptic spiral: ‘Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world, The lood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere The ceremony of innocence is drowned; T he best lack all conviction, while the worst Are full of passionate intensity’ [Second Coming] Disenchantment at materialism, hedonism and neglect of art: ‘Caught in that sensual music all neglect Monuments of unageing intellect’ [Sailing to Byzantium] Anger at the inhumanity of political ideologies: ‘We had fed the heart on fantasies, The heart’s grown brutal from the fare: More substance in our enmities Than in our love’ [Stare] Rage at the pettiness of national politics: ‘for men were born to pray and save’ [September 1913] ‘Conspiring among the ignorant’ [Memories] Fierce resistance in old age to the demise of the mind: ‘Grant me an old man’s frenzy, Myself must I remake’ [Acre] Mockery of world affairs: ‘How can I, that girl standing there, My attention fix On Roman or on Russian Or on Spanish politics? ’ [Politics] Yeats Fascistic or class hatred against the Irish working class: ‘Scorn the sort now growing up All out of shape from toe to top, Their unremembering hearts and heads Base-born products of base beds’ [Ben Bulben] Dislike of pompous burials: ‘No marble, no conventional phrase’ [Ben Bulben] Contempt for materialistic and unthinking people: ‘Imitate him if you dare, World-besotted traveller’ [Swift] How to cite Themes in Yeats’ Poetry, Papers

Friday, December 6, 2019

Global Prevention and Detection Analysis †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about the Global Prevention and Detection Analysis. Answer: Introduction: The recent global ransomware security attacks highlight the challenges that security managers still face and the risks that malicious users still pose on corporate IT resources. Such malware is transmitted, usually, by web pop-ups of through e-mails; it is therefore important that security managers do more to guarantee network security because of how costly disruptions of services can be costly. These attacks further demonstrate why security comes first, especially in a situation where the information and resources are stored in a network where they can be accessed remotely. Corporate networks are becoming larger and complex, as well as requiring greater flexibility than ever; this giver malicious users a bigger attack surface that they can exploit. Network security entails the practices and policies that are adopted to monitor and prevent unauthorized access to, use/ misuse, denial, modification of a computer network and resources accessible through the network. Network security inv olves providing authorizing access to resources and data within a network, controlled by the security manager of network administrator. Users are given specific IDs and credentials to authenticate users and allow access to these resources and data. Network security entails computer networks, both private and public that are used in conducting transactions, business communication, and individuals. A network used privately by a business can be accessed externally by the public; further highlighting the need to have security as being an integral component of networks. This paper discusses corporate network security in the context of Auto-Fishing Group (AG), a cooperative society of Tasmanian fishermen; the cooperative uses sophisticated technology, using UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) to locate schools of fish. AG supplies fish directly to customers from the fishermen, using its own vehicles and ten distribution centers, each of which has three vehicles and every fishermen is affiliated to a distribution center. AG uses a proprietary software that they use to process customer orders; and this helps AG fisheries manage supplies from the fishermen to receive the fish on a just in tie (JIT) approach, through an automated process with computers and the distribution vehicles and mobile devices the fishermen use. The system has a discussion group through which fishermen can post questions via the Internet; the AG cooperative provides online banking services to its members by providing banking facilities from other banks. The society also has a training center where instructions can show students the videos of fish schools directly and its network is part of the entire AG network. The society, therefore, requires guarantees that its proprietary application data, and information within the network remains secure. This paper will provide guidelines and specific policies to guarantee the network security for AG Fisheries. Information Threats and Risks at AG Fisheries The AG network faces threats both internally and externally; threat refers to anything or anyone that is a danger to the network system and its resources. External threats pertain to those that originate outside the AG organization, mainly from the environment that AG operates in. the external threats include socio-economic threats, human threats such as hackers, communication threats, network security threats, legal threats, and software threats (European Commission-Council Press, 2011). Social engineering threats where data can be stolen or misused to impersonate valid members for fraud given that the fishermen personal banking details can be accessed via the network is also another form of external threat to the AG network system. Other important threats to the AG network includes theft of personal information (Identifiable such as banking details), theft of intellectual property and theft of confidential business strategies. Physical and legal threats can entirely endanger the AG network; the threats can impact the organization for a limited time period or partially, such as denial of service attacks, while cyber crimes expose AG to legal risks, for instance, if the financial details of a fisherman are stolen or compromised, the organization could be sued (Basani, 2015). The organization is also at risk of internal threats that originate from within the AG organization. The main contributors of internal threats includes contractors, employees, or even customers and suppliers. The major internal threats include fraud, for example, of fishermens financial accounts, information destruction (possibly too hide fraud), and information misuse (Basani, 2015). Other internal threats include non-intended risks, where users open content, such as mails, that are laden with malware and unknowingly spread them over the network, destroying the network resources of AG Cooperative. Internal threats come from weak security policies such as poor authentication measures and im proper classification of information access rights, inadequate duty segregation, weak administrative passwords, systems that are not properly configured, non restricting administrator access, and non restricted access for employees (European Commission-Council, 2010). Information Security Structure and Risk Assessment at AG Cooperative Information and network security risk assessment for AG Cooperative is important for developing an integrated security policy to prevent or mitigate the said security threats. The business requirements entail accepting and processing customer orders online, getting information form fishermen on their stocks and placing orders, delivering the fish t consumers, storing customer details, including transactions and their address details, as well as the financial information of the fishermen through the online banking application. The following section explains the security policies that should be implemented at the cooperative too guarantee security of it s network resources and information. Security Policies for AG Cooperative The security policy entails the governing policy that is a high level treatment of the concepts of security important to the organization and controls all the security aspects of the organization. The governing policy encompasses the technical as well as the end-user policies. The technical policies include technical policies that guide all technical operations while the end user policies pertain to the end users policies of the what, when, where, and who. Technical security policy and its framework The security risk assessment will entail taking a framework entailing the discovery, device profiling, Scanning, and Validation Discovery: Entails establishing a the target network segment fingerprinting and includes all device addresses and their UDP, TCP, and other network services that can be accessed from the internal network. Active and passive sniffers should be used to collect traffic within the network to enable parsing and analysis. This requires active hosts to be identified, cr edentials authentication, indication of potential malware, and any other vulnerabilities. Traffic in the network, in particular, must be managed by crafting unique packets through protocols such as TCP and UDP to determine the availability of hosts. These processes all pertain to identify all possible threats (Pacquet, 2016) Device profiling: making use of the gathered information during discovery, the lit of all accessible network services, known network architectures, and IP (Internet protocol0 stack fingerprints are analyzed to identify possible trust relationships and roles every device with the network infrastructure lays, including the mobile devices and any devices in the delivery vehicles (Pacquet, 2016). Scanning: Every network service identified during discovery and profiling must be tested in phases for any known (and new) vulnerabilities; vulnerabilities include system compromises, unauthorized data access, denial of service, command execution, and information disclosure (Pacquet, 2016), (Mulins, 2007). Validation: this is the final step and entails validating or attempting to exploit all results from the vulnerability scanning; using specific tests and techniques to test for possible vulnerabilities and implement mitigation measures (Pacquet, 2016). Shewhart Cycle to Ensure Information Security The Shewhart cycle is a PCDA (plan, do, check, act) is a four stage repetitive cycle for continuous improvement of security and its business processes. Its aim is for the improvement of the quality and effectiveness withing the life cycle management of products and also for TQM (total quality management) Plan: The problems to be addressed must be defined, relevant data collected, and the root cause of the problem ascertained Do: The solution is then developed and implemented and measures for gauging effectiveness developed Check: Confirm results through prior and after data comparisons Act: The results are documented, others informed about changes to processes, and recommendations made for the problem to be addressed in the next cycle (Weiss Solomon, 2016. The main components of the network includes the routers, switches, and the firewall. The router is the security gate in the outer layer of the network; it forwards IP packets within the network to sub networks and includes outboun d and inbound networks. The router should be set to block unwanted, undesired, or unauthorized traffic to the network and be secured against re-configuration. The Firewall is for blocking all unnecessary ports while allowing traffic from only the known ports; the firewall monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and to prevent known attacks from getting to the AG web server. The firewall operating system must be regularly patched. The switch plays a minimal role to secure the network, however, they should be configured to send only specially formatted data packets. The policy should require router passwords being strengthened and encrypted; they should also be patched and updated regularly, and audited as well as set for intrusion detection. Measures to Ensure Security The security policy must be used to train and enlighten all users on the dos and donts, such as not downloading certain file types if attached to mail and providing a safe channel for anonymous reporting of suspected internal fraud/ threats. From a technical point of view, the wireless access points in the network must be encrypted, along with the routers and router passwords. Wireless network s are usually wide open and ripe for exploitation (Glance, 2017). The SSID should be hidden for the wireless network and access from the outside should be disabled for routers with web management services and the default admin password changed. All computers must have an anti virus software that is updated regularly and the web servers being run on the LAN should be placed n a DMZ. Web servers must be scanned regularly for any forms of exploits and if possible, the distribution centers should connect to the main office through a VPN (virtual private network). File print sharing on the network s hould be disabled except on the file server, with user access restricted. The disks in the servers should be set with redundancy such as RAID 6 and encrypted while the entire network should be backed up through virtualization and off-site backup, such as using a cloud service provider to guarantee BPC in the event of a disaster. For the fishermen, online banking should be authenticated using a two-step process; through the password system and from the mobile devices (Stewart, 2014) The network should provide the first line of defense to control access to the AG Cooperative resources and servers. The servers will have additional protection using their operating systems but network security level protection is still necessary to stop a deluge of attacks from reaching the serves ad other resources. The basic network components includes the router, a firewall and switch; the image below shows the way these components are arranged in a network; IDS and IPS To ensure network security, the first step entails detecting and preventing intrusion from happening in the first place. This requires the use of tools for intrusion defense (Intrusion Defense Systems -IDS) and Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS). While the technologies used to achieve intrusion defense and intrusion protection, the two approaches are fundamentally different. IDS refers to the process of monitoring network events and analyzing them for possible signs of imminent threats or violations to the security policies. Intrusion prevention, on the other hand, refers to the process of undertaking intrusion detection and followed up with stopping the detected incidents. The IDS and IPS work together to ensure network security Management (Trost, 2010). The IPS/ IDS addresses the many threats that can affect the network of AG Cooperative. The AG Cooperatives has several access points to its network and to other networks, including the World Wide Web, both private and public. The ch allenge for AG Cooperative is to maintain the network security while keeping it open for the users, including the customers and the fishermen (Chapman, 2016). Advantages of the Security Policy Protecting sensitive information: The network resource swill have sensitive financial and banking information for the fishermen as well as client details and cooperative information. Protecting data will ensure they operations remain private and confidential. Aligning with best practice standards: This would help the cooperative comply with global security standards Ensure business process continuity: In the event of a disaster, essential businesses will keep running from the virtual backups and ensure essential data remains safely stored The proposed security policy will enable the detection and prevention of threats before they occur through the use of the IDS and IPS systems. The policy will also allow for continuous improvement and upgrading of the security system through the use of the Shewhart cycle and the approach of evaluation and adapting; network security is seldom constant and instead, is constantly changing, hence there is the need to continuously update and improve the network security systems. Assumptions It is assumed that the organization will have the right staff to implement the security policy; the policy also assumes that every mechanism is designed to implement a single or more parts of the security policy. The mechanisms, when united, implements all security aspects and the mechanisms and measures are correctly implemented. Further,the measures are assumed to be installed correctly and administered correctly as well. The set security policies and protocols unambiguously and correctly partitions the the set of the AG Cooperatives system states into unsecure and secure states. This assumption posits that the prescribed policy measures correctly describes and defines a secure system, such that the system is deemed to be secure. Another assumption is that the stated security policy has mechanisms that prevent the entire AG Cooperative fisheries system form getting into the unsecure state. This implies that security mechanisms, such as authentication and user privileges plus the us e of redundancy and virtual backup for continuity will ensure that the system remains safe and secure. The mechanisms can either be broad, secure, or precise. For a security mechanism to be secure, the following conditions must be met;using a formula, let S refer to the set of all the possible states (secure, broad, or precise). Let the secure states be represented by Q as the security policy specifies and the security mechanisms restrict the entire AG Cooperatives system to a variety of states termed R such that R S. the following definition should therefore hold; A security mechanism becomes secure if R Q; it is broad if the states r so that r ? R and also r Q; and it is precise when R = QIn an ideal situation, all the active security mechanisms in a system should be ideal and produce the single precise mechanism where R=Q; however, in real life, security mechanism remain broad, thus allowing the system to enter into a non-secure state (Bishop, 2005). References Basani, V., 2015. Internal vs. External Security Threats: Why Internal Is Worse Than You Expected (and What You Can Do About It). [online] EiQ Networks Blog. Available at: https://blog.eiqnetworks.com/blog/internal-vs.-external-security-threats-why-internal-is- worse-than-you-expected-and-what-you-can-do-about-it [Accessed 20 May 2017]. Bishop, M. (2005). Assumptions and Trust | An Overview of Computer Security | InformIT. [online] Informit.com. Available at: https://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx? p=363728seqNum=4 [Accessed 23 May 2017]. Chapman, C. (2016). Network performance and security: testing and analyzing using open source and low-cost tools. https://nls.ldls.org.uk/welcome.html? ark:/81055/vdc_100029834340.0x000001. European Commission-Council Press. (2011). Security policy and threats. Clifton Park, NY, Course Technology Cengage Learning. European Commission-Council. (2010). Network Defense + Network Defense - Security Policy and Threats + Network Defense - Perimeter Defense Mechanisms + Network Defense - Securing and Troubleshooting Network Operating Systems + Network Defense - Security and V Fundamentals and Protocols. Cengage Learning Ptr. Glance, D. (2017). Massive global ransomware attack highlights faults and the need to be better prepared. [online] The Conversation. Available at: https://theconversation.com/massive- global-ransomware-attack-highlights-faults-and-the-need-to-be-better-prepared-77673 [Accessed 20 May 2017]. Paquet, C., 2016. Cisco Press. [online] Security Policies Cisco. Available at: https://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=1998559seqNum=3 [Accessed 20 May 2017]. Stewart, J. M. (2014). Network security, firewalls, and VPNs.